Smart body fluid management systems

French Hospital Hygiene Society, FRANCE - 2017. Standard precautions

“One study showed that 23-65% of health professionals had splash exposure incidents [12]. Another study showed that in a 3-month period, 37% of nurses reported an incident of splash exposure … The case-finding of cross-transmission of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci was identified as an environmental source, sanitary facilities, common to several patients […] The protective bags make it easier and more secure to collect, transport and dispose of excreta.“

CISSS Chaudières-Appalaches, Quebec, CANADA - 2016. Management at the source of excreta at the Hôtel-Dieu de Lévis

“A remarkable 50% decrease in the incidence of nosocomial infections associated with C. difficile was observed after the adoption of this technique. The overall rate increased from 13.1 in 2012-2013 (104 cases) to 6.4 in 2014-2015 (48 cases) [3]. Savings due to such a decrease have not been measured, but are likely to be real, given the estimated costs associated with C. difficile (coverage and increased length of stay)“.[…]

National Institute of Public Health of Quebec, CANADA - 2015. Study on the measures applied in acute care facilities in Quebec with regard to the prevention and control of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea

“Facilities that disinfect reusable basins and commode pots with an effective method of removing C. difficile spores after each use for the same user are associated with a significant decrease in their incidence rate of 27% compared to those who do not; […] The use of disposable basin supports and basins covered with a hygienic envelope is associated with a significant decrease in their incidence rates of 48%.“

CISSS Haute-Yamaska, Infection Control Department, Quebec, CANADA - 2015. Pilot project report

“The chart “Incidence of nosocomial acquisition CDAD” shows a fairly striking reduction in the incidence of hospital acquisition CDAD. In fact, the overall incidence rate increased from 8.0 in 2012-2013 to 3.2 in 2014-15, a reduction of more than 50%. […] On the net, without considering the infections avoided, the use of hygiene bags represents for the organization an efficiency gain of $ 40,007.“[…]

Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Quebec, CANADA – 2015

“In 2009, a set of preventive measures were introduced to try to limit the transmission of germs, for example, the introduction of dedicated and disposable equipment. Examples? The basin, the stethoscope, the armband for blood pressure, the disposable thermometer, the use of hygienic envelopes for stool management, early detection for C. difficile (from the first liquid stool) […] same as on various germs such as VRE, MRSA, Ebola, etc. […] The collective effort demonstrates the effectiveness of the measures put in place. The need to maintain these measures remains crucial for all clients attending our institution.“

Committee on nosocomial infections in Quebec, INSPQ, CANADA - 2014. Guide to responding to an outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) in a hospital setting

“5.4 Give preference to the use of disposable basins or sanitary bags rather than reusable basins. 5.5 Avoid excreta disposal to avoid splashing. 5.7 Do not use the wall shower to clean reusable basins.”

Minnesota MBH, USA - 2014. Algorithms for the prevention and management of Clostridium difficile infection in long term care

“Use hygienic envelopes as soon as possible. Clean immediately and disinfect chairs / toilets and grab bars / handles after each use.”

Committee on Nosocomial Infections of Quebec, INSPQ, CANADA - 2014. Ebola virus disease: prevention and control measures for hospitals

“If the patient cannot use the toilet, use a commode for its exclusive use and sanitary bags to contain stool and urine. Arrange hygienic bags and their contents as described in the “waste management” section. If excreta are drained into the toilet, minimize the risk of splashing and contamination of surfaces.”

Capital Health, Nova Scotia, CANADA - 2014. Triaging and management of patients suspected or confirmed with Ebola virus disease

“Suspected or confirmed patients with the Ebola viral disease should be placed in a private room with dedicated toilet (or dedicated commode with use of Hygie hygienic envelopes)”.[…]

APIC, USA - 2013. Guide to preventing Clostridium difficile infections

“There are several new devices, such as disposable commode liners and bowel catheters, that are designed to contain fecal incontinence and may contribute an overall effort to minimize spore contamination in the environment.”[…]

LTL Magazine, USA - 2013. Conquering the C.Difficile in long term care

“If a bedpan is required, use a disposable one.  For commodes, consider the use of disposable hygienic envelopes.”

USCD, Quebec, CANADA - 2013. Acute care unit, medicine and surgery

“The support required when disposable equipment and hygienic envelopes are used are reserved for the client during his stay.”

Maine Center of Disease, USA - 2013. Protocol for the prevention of C.Difficile transmission in long term care

“There should not be shared toilets. If there is more than one person using the bath room, dedicate a personal commode to the patient with a C.difficile infection. Use plastic bags with coagulating material to minimize contamination of health personnel. Contaminated bags can be placed in regular garbage.”

Public Health York Region, Ontario, CANADA - 2013. Clostridium difficile infection management in institutions

“If commodes / bedpans are used: the use of absorbent hygienic envelopes that can be thrown in garbage is to be preferred.”

American Journal of Infection Control_2012

American Journal of Infection Control, USA - 2012. Hospital bath basins are frequently contaminated with multidrug-resistant human pathogens

“Almost 2/3 of the toilet bowls studied had at least one pathogen commonly associated with nosocomial infections. At least one bowl was contaminated in the 88 hospitals that participated in the study. The bowls were in the intensive care unit, medical-surgical unit, and regular units.”[…]

Committee on nosocomial infections of Quebec, INSPQ, CANADA - 2012. Prevention measures of VRE

“Ensure that excreta management is carried out in an appropriate manner to avoid contamination of the environment. For example, consider the use of disposable hygienic bags or other means to promote the safe handling of excreta.”

Salmon Health Northbridge, MA, USA - 2012. C.Diffifile reduction: A team approach

“Implanted Changes for Long-Term Care Equipment: Hygienic Envelopes for Commodes.”

Canadian Journal of Infection Control, CANADA - 2011. Bedpan management methods: Making an informed choice

“To better prevent nosocomial infections C. Difficile, sterilization of basins after discharge of patients or the use of disposable basins or hygienic envelopes should be considered. […] They also believe that the envelopes provide better control of the risk of spore contamination and that the risk of infection is minimal compared to the system of disposable cardboard bedpans. […] Overall, hygienic envelopes are the easiest to implant.”[…]

Canadian Journal of Infection Control, CANADA – 2011

“Thus, taking into account the cost of human resources involved in the transport of bedpans to the disinfection room, the total cost of treating bedpans starting from the bedpan washer is $ 413,136 for a 2 minute transport time. In comparison, the cost of using hygienic covers in the previous scenario is $ 319,481.”

CHUM, Quebec, CANADA - 2010. Cost-efficiency analysis of bedpan washers and hygienic covers

“Thus, taking into account the cost of human resources involved in the transport of bedpans to the disinfection room, the total cost of treating bedpans from washbasins is $ 413,136 for a 2 min. transport time. In comparison, the cost of using sanitary envelopes in the previous scenario is $ 319,481.”

Quebec government agency responsible for health services and technology assessment, CANADA - 2009. Comparative analysis of bedpan processing equipment

“The manual cleaning of bedpans should be banned, because it represents a high risk of infection: we must avoid emptying bedpans in sinks or toilets and using the spray wand.”[…]

St Hyacinthe Study, Quebec, CANADA – 2007

“Hygienic covers for bedpans that absorb liquids and odours enable the secure elimination of fecal matter with no risks of contamination are interesting replacement solutions to the cleaning and disinfection of bedpans.”

Infection Control Center, British Columbia, CANADA - 2008. Clostridium difficile outbreak survey at the Nanaimo regional hospital

“It is highly likely issues with inappropriate cleaning of bedpans have been a major factor in spread of CDAD. A new system of bedpan liners that can be easily disposed of has been introduced this week that should help address this problem”

Conseil Supérieur de la Santé 2017

Superior Health Council, BELGIUM - 2017. Recommendations for the prevention, control and management of Clostridium difficile infections in healthcare institutions

“The bucket of the pierced commode chair and the bedpan remain attributed to the patient / resident for the duration of the precautions. Since bedpan washers are (generally) not sporicidal, it should be ensured that the bedpan is not treated with other ones and that it is subsequently reassigned to the same patient / resident. […] provide a device to reduce the massive contamination of bedpans (for example, with the use of a disposable protective bag containing a solidifying substance).”